Computer programming languages are no exception. programmable, general-purpose, Programming Languages - . What is a Programming Language Why do we need a programming language Why are there so many programming languages Generations of programming languages. • A program in this format is said to be in machine code. In these languages, programs are written by means of the memory and registers available on the computer. Prasad (modified), Imperative vs Non-Imperative • Functional/Logic programs specify WHAT is to be computed abstractly, leaving the details of data organization and instruction sequencing to the interpreter. Know that there are different levels of programming language: low-level language high-level language. Emphasis on data abstraction. A programming language defines a set of instructions that are compiled together to perform a specific task by the CPU (Central Processing Unit). Each programming language contains a unique set of keywords and syntax, which are used to create a set of instructions. Procedural vs Functional 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner slide thanks to T.K. Assembly languages, that are thin wrappers over a corresponding machine language 3. Introduction:. the, The classification of languages - . Computation by instruction execution. With the help of robots, human efforts to perform complex works become simpler and precise. Computer programming language can be classified into two major categories: •Low Level •High Level Low Level Languages The languages which use only primitive operations of the computer are known as low language. Programming languages are languages When it comes to mechanics of the task, learning to speak and use a programming language is in many ways like learning to speak a human language In both kind of languages you have to learn new vocabulary, syntax and semantics (new words, sentence structure and meaning) And both kind of language require considerable practice to make perfect. S = 420 Logic Languages Problem: sum twice the numbers from 1 to N Prolog, Advantages of the DSL Approach • Programs in the target domain are: • more concise • quicker to write • easier to maintain • easier to reason about • written by non-programmers Contribute to higher programmer productivity Dominant cost in large SW systems Formal verification, program transformation, compiler optimization These are the same arguments in favor of any high-level language! Get powerful tools for managing your contents. View and free download classification of programming languages powerpoint (ppt) presentation slides. Different languages have different purposes, so it makes sense to talk about different kinds, or types, of languages. • new language(s) for every domain • Language creep/bloat. support for procedural abstraction; modules; etc will already exist in the host language; • It is straightforward to integrate code from multiple DSLs if they share the same host implementation. Program: a sequence of instructions for a von Neumann m/c. Why learn more than one programming language. • 3.Poor quality software was produced. Classification of languages according to how they structure words out of morphemes ; Isolating languages few morphemes, simple method prefix and suffix (English) Agglutinating languages words containing many morphemes, highly regular rules (Turkish) Synthetic or polysynthetic Words containing many morphemes, very complex rules (Inuktitut) 12 • Automated construction tools for interpreters and compilers can make building a stand-alone system cheaper; while many such tools exist, some important ones are still missing. Sometime it’s also known as level and/or generation of programming language. • Many language features needed by a typical DSL • e.g. A language is the main medium of communicating between the Computer systems and the most common are the programming languages. • language encourages thinking about problem in a particular way • depending on problem, one way of thinking may be better • language should match the problem • many factors govern choice of language • correctness and efficiency of resulting programs • ease of development and maintenance • reusability and interoperability • …, History of Programming Languages Prehistory • c2000 BC, Babylon: “Algorithms” for calendar computation, no explicit conditionals or iteration • c300 BC, Greece: Euclid expresses the greatest common divisor algorithm using iteration • c1820-1870, England: Countess Ada Lovelace writes programs for Babbage’s analytic engine • 1950s: first modern programming languages appear, History of Programming Languages FORTRAN 1954-1957, John Backus (IBM) • numeric, scientific computing • fixed format for punched cards • implicit typing • only numeric data • only bounded loops, test vs zero Algol 60 1958-1960, International committee • numeric, scientific computing • free format, reserved words • block structure and lexical scope • while loops, recursion • explicit typing • BNF for formal syntax definition, History of Programming Languages COBOL 1959-1960, DoD committee • business data processing • explicit data description • records and file handling • English-like syntax APL 1956-1960, Ken Iverson (IBM) • array processing • functional programming style • nonstandard character set • multidimensional arrays Lisp 1956-1962, John McCarthy (Stanford) • symbolic computing: AI • functional programming style • same representation for program and data • garbage collection, History of Programming Languages SNOBOL 1962-1966, Farber, et al. Recursion. All the computer programming languages are broadly classified into the following; Machine level Language; … Iteration. ), e.g. CLASSIFICATION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES. Robotics Market- Overview. • Hence the advent of high(er) level languages commencing with the introduction of “Autocodes”, and going on to Algol, Fortran, Pascal, Basic, Ada, C, etc. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Classification of Programming Languages 1. Computation by term rewriting. View CHAPTER 2 CSC305.ppt from CSC 305 at Universiti Teknologi Mara. Since the starting of programming language, it is classified into three categories. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Every programming language belongs to one of these category and sub-category. 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner slide thanks to T.K. Which shows level of abstraction of languages. • “high-level languages are less efficient” • Unacceptable start-up costs. informatics i101 march 22, 2004 john c. paolillo. • Creating or modifying a DSL is relatively cheap, provided a suitably powerful host language (e.g. Programming languages are basically devided into 3 types: 1. • Even if the domain ultimately requires generating code for a specialized target environment, the embedded implementation can be used for modeling and simulation. (A Level) A programming language is a special language programmers use to develop software programs, scripts, or other sets of instructions for computers to … Know that machine code and assembly language are considered to be… • 1990s exploiting parallel and distributed hardware (going faster! various parallel extensions to existing languages and dedicated parallel languages such as occam. While doing programming in any programming language, you need to use various variables to store various information. • 2000s Genetic programming languages, DNA computing, bio-computing? • To address these problems the discipline of software engineering came into being. java (object oriented) acl2 (propositional induction) algorithmic. Throughout this post, we will reveal a detailed classification of programming languages, with their features and differences that distinguish them from each other. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. no ?- sum(20,S). prolog part 3 sql & prolog. • New data representations cause additive changes in object-oriented style, but require modifications to all “procedure modules”. Please view in HD (cog in bottom right corner). instructions use some english words (if, programming language paradigms correspond, CHRONOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, 1980s reducing complexity – object orientation, functional. 1970s Fighting the “software crisis”: • Reducing machine dependency – portability. • We can write programs in machine code: 23fc 0000 0001 0000 0040 0cb9 0000 000a 0000 0040 6e0c 06b9 0000 0001 0000 0040 60e8. This slideshow shows how they are classified and explains low level and high level languages in depth. Top-down design; Step-wise refinement. 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner slide thanks to Tim Sheard, Sort(X) = permutation of X whose elements are pairwise ordered • divide(6,2) = some number x such that 2*x=6 (Could solve by a general equation solver, or by Prolog) • sqrt(-6) = ... 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner, Language Influences Programming Practice • Languages often strongly favor a particular style of programming • Object-oriented languages: a style making heavy use of objects • Functional languages: a style using many small side-effect-free functions • Logic languages: a style using searches in a logically-defined problem space 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner slide thanks to Adam Webber (modified), Fighting the Language • Languages favor a particular style, but do not force the programmer to follow it • It is always possible to write in a style not favored by the language • It is not usually a good idea… 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner slide thanks to Adam Webber (modified), Example: APL Factorial • An APL expression that computes X’s factorial • Expands X it into a vector of the integers 1..X, then multiplies them all together • (You would not really do it that way in APL, since there is a predefined factorial operator: !X) • Could be called functional, but has little in common with most functional languages    X 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner slide thanks to Adam Webber (modified), Programming Experience Influences Language Design • Corrections to design problems make future dialects, as already noted • Programming styles can emerge before there is a language that supports them • Programming with objects predates object-oriented languages • Automated theorem proving predates logic languages 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner slide thanks to Adam Webber (modified), Turing Equivalence • General-purpose languages have different strengths, but fundamentally they all have the same power • {problems solvable in Java}= {problems solvable in Fortran}= … • And all have the same power as various mathematical models of computation • = {problems solvable by Turing machine}= {problems solvable by lambda calculus}= … • Church-Turing thesis: this is what “computability” means 600.325/425 Declarative Methods - J. Eisner slide thanks to Adam Webber (modified), Declarative Programming • A logic program defines a set of relations. Devided into 3 types: 1 computer language necessary for any processor on procedural abstraction ”: • machine. Policy and User Agreement for details be thought of as rapid prototyping ( a level ) classification programming. The memory and registers available on the computer PERL, Visual basic, OS shells ( as. 5 subcategories, out of 5 total, is a functional programming FP. 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