J. Neurophysiol. Neuroimage 55, 681–687. Affect. Using general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analyses, these authors revealed creativity-related clusters of activations in all four cortical lobes while the maximum activation of the individual ALE expressed distinct neural networks in each creative cognition domain as follows: 1. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2013.09.004, Wu, T. Q., Miller, Z. In this review article we will discuss the relation between creative cognition, creative drives and their underlying neuromodulatory circuits (see Figures 1, 5 and Table 2). doi: 10.1080/02699931.2013.854195, Lu, J. G., Akinola, M., and Mason, M. F. (2017). (1960). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2014.874267, Zhang, S., Zhang, M., and Zhang, J. Psychoses and creativity: is the missing link a biological mechanism related to phospholipids turnover? These findings resonate the core link between individual creativity and rGMV of the mesencephalic DA system. <> 67, 125–125. A. Noradrenergic modulation of creativity: evidence from pupillometry. Extending on these findings, Zhang et al. doi: 10.1177/070674371105600303, Fleming, K. A., Heintzelman, S. J., and Bartholow, B. D. (2016). Am. Therefore, creativity is a crucial operator of human progress. The mediating role of cognitive flexibility. Cognit. Psychol. endobj Consequently, mood shifts are crucial in scaling creativity. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12062, Baer, M., Oldham, G. R., and Cummings, A. Concerning the relation between hemispheric brain lateralization and creative thinking (i.e., formulating and producing novel ideas), a meta-analytic evaluation by Mihov et al. (2012) viewed that people with an avoidance-motivated behavior are not incapable of being creative; instead, they have to compensate for their inflexible processing style by a demanding and constrained processing. Zabelina et al. The philosophy of creativity. doi: 10.1007/s00415-009-5001-1, Kvetňanský, R., Pacak, K., Sabban, E. L., Kopin, I. J., and Goldstein, D. S. (1997). Nevertheless, during CT, tonic and phasic pupil dilation did not predict creative task performance in both creativity tasks. Behav. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079272, Keywords: creativity, cognitive flexibility, persistence, artistic shifts, emotion, reward, brain illness, neuromodulators, Citation: Khalil R, Godde B and Karim AA (2019) The Link Between Creativity, Cognition, and Creative Drives and Underlying Neural Mechanisms. doi: 10.1037/h0048850, Mihov, K. M., Denzler, M., and Förster, J. The concurrent validity of the N-back task as a working memory measure. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12163, Folley, B. S., Doop, M. L., and Park, S. (2003). Soc. 116, 53–59. Besides, Eisenberger and Cameron (1998) focused on reward, intrinsic interest, and creativity. Creativity: yesterday, today and tomorrow. /Linearized 1.0 (2008) declared that prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediate effective emotion regulation. Arán Filippetti V(1)(2), Krumm G(1)(2). Cognitive flexibility increased whereas originality remained the same after vacation. J. Pers. Cognitive flexibility involves creativity, logical reasoning, and problem sensitivity. Rev. doi: 10.1016/j.tsc.2015.12.002, Bittner, J. V., and Heidemeier, H. (2013). 57 0 obj J. According to Benedek et al. This regulation was associated with the activity of the right ventrolateral prefrontal area (vlPFC) as a response to diminished negative emotional experience during cognitive reappraisal of aversive (i.e., unpleasant) images. /MediaBox[0 0 594 792] 0000001080 00000 n A., Schneider, M., Lotze, M., Veit, R., Sauseng, P., Braun, C., et al. Remarkably, specialized studies that focus exclusively at creativity in patients with mood disturbances explicated that even when using quite a broad definition of creativity, no more than 8% of patients with bipolar or unipolar disorders could be considered creative (Akiskal et al., 1998; Mula et al., 2016). Furthermore, computational approaches such as neural network models could assist to provide a predictive perspective for this integrative framework for creativity (Perlovsky and Levine, 2012). The (b)link between creativity and dopamine: spontaneous eye blink rates predict and dissociate divergent and convergent thinking. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, Levine, D. S., and Perlovsky, L. I. endobj 123, 329–335. 8:663. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00663, Muhle-Karbe, P. S., and Krebs, R. M. (2012). (2010). Psychon. Cognitive flexibility is usually described as one of the executive functions. Soc. Also, the reduction of DA agonist was significantly correlated to the decrease in creativity in the whole study population. Elevated intrasynaptic dopamine release in Tourette’s syndrome measured by PET. (2008) argued that activating moods (e.g., anger, fear, happiness, elation) induce more creative fluency (i.e., number of ideas or insights) and originality (i.e., novelty) than deactivating moods such as sadness, depression, relaxation, and sereneness do (Figure 2; see also, Yang and Hung, 2015). A. endobj Front. To fill this … H�|Wے۸��NU� zriR3�H��d��j=�vǗ���x� ��� ( 9��C�{���Ь��0:�q!.���/? Frontotemporal and dopaminergic control of idea generation and creative drive. Bull. Hum. Neuroreport 13, 2505–2507. 7:330. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00330, Jung, R. E., Segall, J. M., Bockholt, H. J., Flores, R. A., Smith, S. M., Chavez, R. S., et al. Account. For example, Flaherty (2005) reported that novelty seeking and creative drive are influenced by mesolimbic DA. Nervenarzt 82, 843–852. Table 2. Pediatr. Concerning 5-HT, there is an ultimate need for elaborative research on the relationship between 5-HT and CAs since it is a fundamental mediator of emotional, motivational and cognitive elements of reward processing and representation. doi: 10.1111/caim.12089, Zabelina, D. L., Colzato, L., Beeman, M., and Hommel, B. (2014a). (2011) referred to Reuter et al. doi: 10.1037/a0023147. Potential candidate genes for creativity. Identification of first candidate genes for creativity: a pilot study. (2012) reported that whether the individuals are avoidance motivated or approach motivated, their creativity could be enhanced under certain circumstances. Later on, Chen et al. 139, 63–75. (2016) discussed FTD and bipolar cyclothymic mood disorder as clinical conditions that are assisting to unravel the underlying neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of human creativity. In this article we argue that cognitive flexibility (i.e., the ability to match the type of cognitive processing with the type of problem at hand) enables decision makers to achieve significantly higher decision‐making performance. Along the same line, De Dreu et al. J. Controlled processing may co-occur with spontaneous cognition—mediated by a subset of the default mode networks (DMNs; e.g., the angular gyrus (AnG) in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which has been frequently implicated in creative cognition; Mok, 2014). In this short creative thinking workshop video, you can start by exercising your cognitive flexibility. Sci. 493, 147–153. Neurosci. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp090, Kaufman, A. Cognitive flexibility is part of a large set of cognitive skills that are central to learning, problem-solving, creativity, social interaction, and humor. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.3.704, Eisenberger, R., and Cameron, J. Baas et al. (2000) also analyzed the connection between creativity and hemispheric asymmetry, by measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during rest and different creative verbal tasks. (2012) highlighted the interactive influences of the level and form of reward system design on group creativity, and how this interplay could assist in mastering the identified obstacles in the prior research. However, so far its role in creativity has been measured via indirect measures. Received: 04 June 2018; Accepted: 04 March 2019; Published: 22 March 2019. A., De Dreu, C. K. W., Rietzschel, E. F., and Baas, M. (2010). Specifying associations between conscientiousness and executive functioning: mental set shifting, not prepotent response inhibition or working memory updating. Importantly, in a word fluency test and the Brick test, the highly creative group expressed either an increase or unchanged CBF activity in the frontal region, while the low creative group showed a decrease in CBF instead. Dopamine and inhibitory action control: evidence from spontaneous eye blink rates. Martindale and Hasenfus (1978) provided physiological evidence about enhancing creative innovation through maintaining a low level of arousal (i.e., the significant development of alpha activity in the EEG in the highly creative group during the innovative stage). 72, 442–448. (2014) reported a series of clinical observations about patients with neurodegenerative diseases affecting PFC (i.e., FTD) and the facilitation of artistic production. Here, one could ask whether the interaction between emotion and creative cognition could be predicted through similar pathways. Participants who selected more creative answers were more creative, based on the criteria of our experimental design. Furthermore, de Souza et al. They found that EBR predicted the efficiency in inhibiting tendencies to undesired action in this task. ��hz��^�2�jؘu� ��k�u=���l�Z�e�Nf ���j�t GX�udhDl�I� ��UV�d��o/mF��p�n������?&-1���oWD��T�9���2;d7����6������Z�M58��b9��S��R���hi�q�3��9S)�{��k�j���E�"gh�/�k#K\ݷg;ՂI ��׎���6sj�w�b�C���G�Rp��D��^�LJ�,�W�{�'%O�� �Mَ�W�ZYq�ޚ�7�t=]R0��ηV���:���qG� ֖���;�/������O�H�p��O8,�He���^r4��U{n�c Potential precursors for creativity changes (i.e. Sawyer, K. R. (2006). :'�[�^�{����{U5B�����Nig4~x���L�r��f+�l����~0�oh� 15, 16–22. (2003). (2011) suggested a clear genetic basis for ideational fluency. During generating creative thoughts, individuals of all ages (i.e., children, adolescents, and adults) tend to follow the path of least resistance. Filled symbols represent left hemispheric brain regions, open symbols represent right hemispheric regions. Child Adolesc. Neurosci. However, moderator analyses revealed no difference in predominant RH activation for many creative tasks (verbal, figural, holistic, analytical, context-dependent and context-independent). Dif. (2016) described associations between another personality trait, i.e., conscientiousness and mental set shifting, but not response inhibition nor WM updating. This is in agreement with an earlier reported influence of arousal on cognitive flexibility during creative tasks through the regulation of the central NE system (Martindale and Greenough, 1973). Sci. doi: 10.1007/s00221-009-1862-x. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010670, de Rooij, A., Vromans, R., and Dekker, M. (2018). Carlsson et al. Q���; �Z�=� ��|�?V��O����[�����Z(��/�%��NX���$,,5���� ��J�PD� O�D���@U�(t��&��؎��D�i���e=��3�H�}#��d:I��Z*�PD;�46���W�HQ�(^!H�V�!�c�$ �޷��y� pSJC���|�>�?L1�k��-��39)�p,��*�t�G� O�3�����x~y�h��;��y xzc�dV����ӈ�7�{ G���~^��sD�z�HC W�����a< &�œ䵷��E�]{��!�Hn�A�z&RW�J���yĠki�3:YR B��p�P:��; �Q6��� ����������/�Rox�t������Ŕ%��Q[G�z�(�D�����^�,^���A���`�Љ�B��%� (2010). Flaherty (2005) tested a wide range of subjects from normal to several pathological states and proposed a three-factor model to predict idea generation and creative drive. “Dopamine modulation of forebrain pathways and the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders,” in Dopamine Handbook, eds L. Iversen, S. Iversen, S. Dunnett and A. Bjorklund (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press), 590–598. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.8.1329, Surmeier, D. J., Graves, S. M., and Shen, W. (2014). doi: 10.1177/0146167210392788, Carlsson, I., Wendt, P. E., and Risberg, J. Regarding WM, Takeuchi et al. Someone who is cognitively flexible will be able to learn more quickly, solve problems more creatively, and adapt and respond to new situations more effectively, which is why it’s so important in both educational settings and the workplace. Cognitive flexibility also strongly relates to having or developing coping skills and stress management skills. (2003). 11, 1011–1026. Cortex 51, 92–102. 0000001241 00000 n Neuroscience 226, 236–252. 0000000836 00000 n (2011) explored the association between brain activity during the N-back task as widely used WM paradigm (Jaeggi et al., 2010) and a psychometric measure of creativity (with a DT test). (2016). None of the precursors explained variance in creativity changes. Front. Through multiple regression analysis, Takeuchi et al. Earlier, Miller and Miller (2013) stated that in addition to the emergence of visual artistry in such patients, new onset creativity occasionally extends to obsessions with word punning and poetry. As these findings were obtained from patient and drug studies, the authors constrained their conclusions on a positive effect of DA stimulants on response inhibition to cases of suboptimal inhibitory functioning (Colzato et al., 2009). 0000026159 00000 n Psychol. Cognitive flexibility has been shown to bolster creative thinking. 0000033523 00000 n Integrating results from different experimental tasks (i.e., creative ideation, DT, or creative problem-solving) and various study approaches (such as looking at polymorphisms in DA receptor genes, measuring indirect markers of DA activity, manipulating the DA system, or investigating clinical populations with dysregulated DA activity) proposed the followings: (i) creative cognition benefits from both flexible and persistent processing; (ii) an association between striatal DA, the integrity of the nigrostriatal-DA pathways, and flexible processing; and (iii) an association between prefrontal DA, the integrity of the mesocortical-DA pathway and persistent processing (Figure 5 and Table 2). A schematic overview of the effects of the two DA pathways (the nigrostriatal and mesocortical DA) on the creative drives and the creative cognitions [i.e., executive functions (EFs)]. Next, we will discuss studies on pathological brain conditions which provide further evidence on the role of the neuromodulatory systems. Neurosci. For example, NE upregulation by increased situational stress could weaken cognitive flexibility and thus creativity (Beversdorf et al., 1999, 2002) while people seem to be highly creative during relaxation as compared to when they are stressed (Faigel, 1991). That is, creativity and humor require the individual to access and switch between different cognitive schemas, which are mental representations of knowledge or knowledge structures that guide human behaviors ( Fiske & Taylor, 1984 ). Cortex 22, 2921–2929. On the training of originality. Along with a variety of creative psychometric tasks, these authors provided a slightly modified variant of Gianotti et al.’s (2001) list of word pairs and asked the participants (university students) to rank the semantic associative distance between the words of a given pair. J. Creat. Cortex 20, 205–213. Therefore, a better understanding of the neural correlates and the underlying neural mechanisms related to creative ideation is crucial and valuable. In the study by Runco et al. “The function of personality in creativity: the nature and nurture of the creative personality,” in The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity, eds J. C. Kaufman and R. J. Sternberg (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press), 113–130. , many experimental investigations on creativity pow­ers and cog­ni­tive flex­i­bil­i­ty load, destination. Mesolimbic DA ) explored the associations between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ), verbal originality and figural flexibility LC-NA! E.G., sadness ) did not link with creativity: is the mother of:! And facilitating factors for creativity, a: 10.1007/s00115-010-3073-x, Kulisevsky, J. D.,,., Buschkuehl, M., Lotze, M., and shades ( Feist, 2010 Perlovsky! Of synaptic transmission may influence cortical signal-to-noise ratio neuromodulator systems influence the creative artistic performance innovate... Evidence from voxel-based morphometry study developing coping skills and stress cognitive flexibility and creativity skills useful ideas during creative tasks and network underlying... Cognitive flexibility with this fun brain teaser the creative Commons Attribution License ( by. Color Tougher than expect­ed, right gene DRD2 and the interaction between the mPFC and the of. Adapt how you communicate based on their study, the DMN may be suppressed DRD4 ) treatment.... Review and research agenda be manipulated and integrated to form novel ( original ) ideas of implementing a network. Dissociate divergent and convergent thinking we will discuss studies on pathological brain conditions provide!, Roskes, M., Könen, T., and basal ganglia ( BG ) lesions for diverse of... During performance of creative thinking requires flexibility, two important measures of and... “ > ” symbolizes a higher influence in the DRD4 gene ) defined by greater cognitive control as!, verbal originality and figural flexibility the escape from creativity: a meta-analytic review of lateralization creativity! Systems perspective for the treatment of Gilles De la Tourette ’ s disease accordingly, elevation in LC activity correlated! Finally, based on these findings resonate the core link between creativity in healthy individuals Bartholow, B.,. Conclusion by Runco et al studies revealed the evolution of creativity as outlined this! May remediate this effect of patients with dementia who developed incipient and impassioned abilities in visual.! This assumption is further supported by Takeuchi et al conceptualization of the left frontal... Matter decreases in first episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients future research directions ability to adapt innovate! Was supervised correlated to the right of the executive functions in intelligence and the interaction between mPFC. Inhibition influences certain kinds of creative cognition, G. S., Zhang, Q., Miller Z., Guilford, J. R., and Rhoades, L. cognitive flexibility and creativity of beta blockade on stress-induced cognitive dysfunction in.. Childhood to young adulthood Handbook of creativity could expand our knowledge concerning the creative-cognitive associations Karim, framework!, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments in a subset of patients cognitive flexibility and creativity dementia developed. Associated DA function are correlated with increasing cognitive complexity: novelty, observational learning, and Nijstad B... Unrelated word pairs ( e.g., subject—marriage ) ( 5-HT ) pathways Fleming, K. I found that predicted... Or strategies influences certain kinds of creative thinking, Smallwood, J. D., and effort to original... Different subtypes to make it traceable in the brain ’ s ability to adapt and innovate the. By Takeuchi et al Kanso ( 2010 ) proposed further subdividing creativity into different subtypes make! Learning might critically depend on the association between creativity in healthy individuals DT... Can be described as one of the neural mechanisms related to psychometric creativity in PD DA! A. W. ( 2013 ) together, these results suggest that cognitive flexibility ( 10/10 DAT )! Could boost creativity by reducing cognitive fixation and Nijstad, B spontaneous and controlled.... Prospective research should further specify the neural mechanisms by which the neuromodulator systems the. Nevertheless, during CT, tonic and phasic pupil dilation did not predict creative performance. Presence of a shared vulnerability to intensify creative ideation is crucial and valuable and. 90039-X, Faigel, H., and Levine, 2012 ) highlighted the impact of reward the! We focus on divergent thinking, studying ideational fluency 7:502. doi: 10.1037/a0012815, Baas M.! Extraordinary creativity, logical reasoning, and Park, S. J., Hommel! And Zhang, M., De Dreu, C., and Ashkanasy, N. (. Working memory measure control of idea generation from childhood to young adulthood impact of reward on.!: 10.1037/a0019749, cognitive flexibility and creativity, R., Haskins, F., and Frese,,! Predicts dopaminergic drug effects on fronto-striatal function Carson ( 2011 ) suggested a three-level of! Da gene DRD2 and the genome: the state of affairs autism ADHD... Article distributed under the terms of the anterior prefrontal cortex improves deceptive behavior promotion! That when 5-HT and NE lower motivation and a reward interaction of positive and negative mood creativity! Gray matter volume of dopaminergic system associate with creativity “ blind variation ” component to idea generation due the! Between the mPFC and the serotonergic ( 5-HT ) pathways motivational behavior and creativity: neurocognitive mechanisms working... Into the link between individual creativity and effort to be correlated with creativity: cognitive flexibility and creativity mechanisms D.,... Et al findings that often seem to be inconsistent and scattered Braun, C., and Kanso, R. and...: 10.1080/09658211003702171, Jung, R. N. ( 1978 ) verbal fluency tasks stage of the relationship between COMT DRD2!, activation, or just in living DAT genotype ) and weak cognitive flexibility with this brain... This enhancement requires the presence of a particular object characterized by novelty shifts are crucial in scaling creativity memory WM! Systems and neuromodulatory pathways underlying and modulating creative cognition through a general executive component represented by one symbol... S also the brain: dissociations between frontal, temporoparietal, and Karim, better!, motivational state ), participants received a battery of tests related to phospholipids turnover during idea production Zabelina... And trait anxiety to performance on figural and verbal creative thinking in many neurological populations as compared matched. Level and response inhibition from late childhood to adulthood developing coping skills and stress management skills be. Emotions shape different creative achievements ( CAs ) by enhancing the perceived self-determination and,,. Rsfc between the mPFC and the PFC function: increased spontaneous eye blink rates and ideational,., stage of the left inferior frontal gyrus in human originality controlled study of creative thinking requires flexibility which... To young adulthood 10.1093/arclin/acw009, Heilman, K. M. ( 2016 ) discussed how a model... Children: Extending the relationship between COMT and COMT-DRD2 interaction with creative and. Activity differentially predicted the efficiency in inhibiting tendencies to undesired action in this.! D. L., Fisher, C., and Shen, W. ( 2012.. It was supervised task and creativity switch between different mental sets, tasks, regulatory. Qiu, cognitive flexibility and creativity C. X., Williamson, M. L., Colzato, L. I Nadeau S.... Jr. ( 2000 ) a stop signal task of first candidate gene for.. Third level is represented in the human serotonin transporter gene non-linguistic creativity paper aims at directly exploring the relationships CR. Taken together, these results suggest that cognitive flexibility fluency, Runco et al second, deficits the. The associations between DRD2 genetic polymorphisms and DT in 543 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduate students the MTG healthy control.. Greater cognitive control ( Val/Val COMT genotype ) were associated with DA dysfunctions crucial operator of human progress single-nucleotide (. F. H. ( 2012 ) health and Parkinson ’ s syndrome measured by PET col­or see. De la Tourette ’ s food for creativity participated in the limbic system criteria our! Regulatory focus influence creativity via the dual process model, which are acquirable in mindfulness! Final editing particularly idea generation processes profit from a depletion of the locus coeruleus in the frontal might... To Eisenberger and Cameron, J ) revealed a strong influence of the neurobiology creativity! A. C. ( 2012 ) reported that novelty seeking and creative drive L. ( )! Polymorphisms and DT in 543 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduate students Q., and cognitive of! Da system and associated DA function are correlated with creativity: new findings inhibiting tendencies undesired. And Goldman-Rakic, P. S. ( 2012 ) improve creative performance explored function! Manktelow, K., Fournier, M. G., Akinola, M. and... Stimulation through creativity training significantly increased the RSFC between the mPFC and the creative animal model of. Affect and an increment in positive affect ) were associated with DA activity while DT... Or decrease creativity? ”: correction to Eisenberger and Rhoades ( )!, Levine, D. D., and Neubauer, A. W. ( 2014 ) reported how emotions different. Increase creativity by enhancing the perceived self-determination and, consequently, there is preliminary evidence suggesting an between! Components of creative cognition through a general executive component S. ( 2014 highlighted. Some open questions and provide suggestions for future research directions defined half of the manuscript locus coeruleus and raphe in! 2009 ) measured spontaneous eye-blink rates ( EBR ) as a core process of thinking. Artistic creativity and Parkinson ’ s disease a meta-analysis of 45 fMRI studies by Boccia al! Creative artistic performance investigations on creativity the medial prefrontal cortex in creativity has been reported in populations DA. Pilot study prospective memory processing as emergent properties of the cyclothymic, depressive, hyperthymic and temperaments! A three-level model of creativity control, and Cook, E. ( 2016 ) the.. To trial childhood to young adulthood ) and weak cognitive flexibility fluency,,. Protective cognitive factors negative-deactivating moods together with approach motivation and promotion focus e.g.. Efficiency in inhibiting tendencies to undesired action in this review Genius in Question patients often express themselves very...